Aircraft System-Unpressurized Aircraft Syllabus Diploma in Aircraft Maintenance Engineering, Regulation 2010

Aircraft System-Unpressurized Aircraft Syllabus:

OBJECTIVES

  • To provide understanding about the systems of unpressurized aircraft.
  • To familiarize difference between unpressurized and pressurized aircraft.
  • To provide knowledge about ice & rain protection system.
  • To give guideline about aircraft fuel system.
  • To familiarize with different methods used in unpressurized aircraft

 

SHORT DESCRIPTION

Introduction to different type of ice & rain protection, aircraft fuel system, heating and cooling, pneumatic, hydraulics and ventilation system.

 

DETAIL DESCRIPTION

 

Theory

  1. Ice & rain protection:

1.1       Introduction.

1.2       Factors affecting ice protection.

1.3       ICE formation types.

            1.3.1    Hoar frost

            1.3.2    Rime ice

            1.3.3    Hails

 

  1. AIRCRAFT AREAS TO BE PROTECTED FROM ICE:

            2.1       All aerofoil leading edges.

2.2       Wind screens

2.3       Engine air intakes

2.4       Propellers

2.5       Pilot-static pressure heads

2.6       All drain masts and different antenna’s etc   

            2.7       Decrease in lift.

            2.8       Increase in drag

            2.9       Increase weight and wing loading

            2.10     Inaccuracy of pilot- static instrument

            2.11     Decrease in thrust

            2.12     Loss of inherent stability

            2.13     Loss of control

            2.14     Radio antenna efficiency reduced

 

  1. ICE DETECTION METHODS AND INDICATION:

            4.1       Visual ice detector (hot rod)

            4.2       Pressure operated ice detector heads.

            4.3       Serrated rotor ice detector heads

            4.4       ICE formation spot light (visual)

            4.5       Vibrating rod ice detector

 

  1. ANTI-ICING AND DE-ICING METHODS:

            5.1       Anti-icing.

                        5.1.1 Fluid method.

5.1.1.1 All aerofoil leading edges

                        5.1.1.2 wind-screen ice protection

                        5.1.1.3 Propeller blade ice protection.

 

                        5.1.2 Pneumatic methods

                        5.1.2.1 Introduction.

                        5.1.2.2 De-icing boots

5.1.2.3 Air supply

                        5.1.2.4 Air distribution (methods)

5.1.2.5 Shuttle valves controlled by separate solenoid valve.

                        5.1.2.6 Individual solenoid valve direct air to each boot.

                        5.1.2.7 Motor driven valves

                        5.1.2.8 Control and indication.                                  

 

            5.2       De-Icing.

                        5.2.1 Thermal method

5.2.1.1 Source of hot air.

                        5.2.1.2 Exhaust gas heating system.

                        5.2.1.3 Hot air bleed system (Engine bleed)

                        5.2.1.4 All aerofoil leading edges (anti-icing) duct.

                        5.2.1.5 Waste water discharge system.

                        5.2.1.6 Different drain mast.

                        5.2.1.7 Hot air supply duct leak and over heat detection.

                        5.2.2 Electric method

                        5.2.2.1 Wind screen anti-icing

                        5.2.2.2 Pilot static sensor anti-icing

                        5.2.2.3 Heater mat (Turbo-prop. Engine air intake)

                        5.2.2.4 Spray mat.

                        5.2.2.5 Galley waste water drain line, toilet drain line etc.

 

  1. WIND SCREEN WIPER:

            6.1       Electro-mechanical system

            6.2       Electro hydraulic system

            6.3       Hydraulic system

 

  1. GROUND DE-ICING:

            7.1       Causes of ice formation on the ground.

            7.2       Methods of de-icing

            7.2.1    Treatment of frost deposits

            7.2.2    Fluid spray

                        7.2.2.1 Cold fluid spray

                        7.2.2.2 Hot fluid spray

                        7.2.3    Hot water de-icing

                                    7.2.3.1 Step – I

                                    7.2.3.2 Step – II

                        7.2.4    De-Icing paste

            7.3       Inspection after de-icing operation.

 

  1. Aircraft Fuel:

            8.1       Definition of Fuel

8.2       Classification Of Fuel According To Physical State.

            8.2.1    Solid fuel

            8.2.2    Gaseous fuel

            8.2.3    Liquid fuel

8.3       Type Of Fuel Used In Aircraft

            8.3.1    Aviation gasoline AVGAS

            8.3.2 Turbine fuel

            8.4       Properties Of Fuel

                        8.4.1    Anti knock value

                        8.4.2    Detention

                        8.4.3    calorific value

                        8.4.4    Higher heating value (HHV)

                        8.4.5    Lower heating value (LHV)

                        8.4.6    Vapor pressure

8.5       Quality Control Of Fuel:

            8.5.1    Micro-biological contamination.

            8.5.2    Fungicidal additives

8.5.3    Ethylene glycol Monomethyl ether.

8.5.4    Bibber

8.5.5    Fungus removal

8.5.6    Corrosion removal      

            8.6.      Aircraft Fuel Tanks:

                        8.6.1    Metal tanks (Rigid)

                        8.6.2    Flexible tanks

                                    8.6.2.1 Advantages to flexible tanks

                        8.6.3    Integral fuel tanks

                        8.6.4    External tanks

                        8.6.5    Fuel tank filler cap

                        7.6.6    Inspection of fuel tanks and tank bays.

8.6.6.1 Leaks

8.6.6.2 Stain

8.6.3.3 Seep

8.6.3.4 Heavy Seep

                        8.6.7    Structural damage

8.6.8    Corrosion                     

            8.7.      Fuel Feed System:

                        8.7.1    Light aircraft

                                    8.7.1.1 Gravity feed tank / electrically operated booster pump

                                    8.7.1.2 Filter (Strainer)

                                    8.7.1.3 Shut off valve (Fuel)

                                    8.7.1.4 Engine primer

                                    8.7.1.5 Non-return valves

            8.7.2    Large aircraft

                        8.7.2.1 Components

                                    8.7.2.1.1          Two main tanks on each wing

                                    8.7.2.1.2          Vent line and vent surge tank one on each wing

                                    8.7.2.1.3          Two booster pumps in each main tank

                                    8.7.2.1.4          One float valve in each tank

                                    8.7.2.1.5          One dipstick in each tank

                                    8.7.2.1.6          Refuel/ Defuel valve

                                    8.7.2.1.7          Suction valve

                                    8.7.2.1.8          Jettison valve

                                    8.7.2.1.9          Water drain valve

                                    8.7.2.1.10        on-return valve (NRV)

                                    8.7.2.1.11        Float switch

                                    8.7.2.1.12        Cross feed valve                                            

                                    8.7.2.1.13        Transfer valve

                                    8.7.2.1.14        Fuel tank filler cap

8.8.      Fuel Quantity Indication System:

            8.8.1    Float type fuel quantity Indicators.

            8.8.2    Capacitance type fuel quantity indicators

            8.8.3    Direct reading indicators

            8.8.4    Physical check of fuel contents

                        8.4.1    Dip stick

                        8.4.2    Drip stick

                        8.4.3    Magnetic fuel level indicators (MFLI)          

8.9.      Refueling / Defueling:

            8.9.1    Safety precautions and safety devices           

            8.9.2    Refueling procedure

            8.9.3    Fuel valves

                        8.9.3.1 Motor Operated valve

                        8.9.3.2 Solenoid operated valve.

            8.9.4    Fuel Pumps

                        8.9.4.1 Centrifugal booster pump

                        8.9.4.2 Pulsating electric pump

                        8.9.4.3 Plunger type fuel pump

                        8.9.4.5 Scavenging jet pump  

            8.10.    Fuel Heaters And Ice Prevention System:

8.11.    Fuel Line And Plumbing:

8.12.    Inspection And Maintenance Of Fuel System:

 

  1. Heating and Cooling

9.1.      Purpose And Function Of heating and cooling.

9.1.1    Heating

9.1.1.1 Engine exhausts gas heating

9.1.1.2 Combustion heating

9.1.2.1 Testing and maintenance of combustion heaters.

 

9.2.      Cooling

            9.2.1    Ram air

            9.2.2    Charge air (pressurized air)

                        9.2.2.1 Engine driven blower

                        9.2.2.2 Engine bleed air (Jet engine)

 

9.3.      Use of Ventilation Fan:

 

9.4.      Oxygen:

            9.4.1    Effect of hypoxia

            9.4.2    Time of useful consciousness

            9.4.3    Prevention of hypoxia

            9.4.4    Decompression sickness

 

  1. Vacuum and pressure

            10.1     Dry and wet pump

            10.2     Oil separation

            10.3     Gyro Supply

            10.4     Relief Valve

            10.5     Filtering

 

  1. Pneumatic

            11.1     Landing gear/Flaps/brakes

            11.2     Operating System

            11.3     Basic theory and component

 

  1. Hydraulics

            12.1     Simple system

            12.2     Reverse selection.

            12.3     Pressure relief

            12.4     Pressure regulation LP & HP filter

            12.5     Different fluids

            12.6     Control and indication.

 

  1. HUMIDITY CONTROL:

            13.1     Water extraction

                        13.1.1  Low pressure extractor

                        13.1.2  High pressure extractor

            13.2     Humidification

 

  1. INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE:

            14.1     Leak detection and protection

            14.2     Visual Inspection

            14.3     Charging of the system (servicing)

 

15        FINAL EXAMINATION  

 

Practical:

  1. Practically show the areas to be affected by ice and protected from ice.
  2. Practically show the Fuel grades and indication system.
  3. Practically show the landing gears and hydraulics in air craft.
  4. Practically demonstrate the installation/Removal of fuel tanks and cells.
  5. Practically demonstrate the instillation Removal of fuel pumps.
  6. Practically demonstrate the refueling/ Defiling of aircraft.
  7. Practically demonstrate the heating and cooling valves installation/removal.

 

REFERENCE BOOKS

  1. Airframe and power plant mechanics

Airframe hand book AC -65-15 A

           Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)

  1. Training Manual

            HAECO Training Department

Australia        

  1. Training Manual

            Bangladesh Airlines Training Centre (BATC)