Surveying-2 Syllabus Diploma in Civil Engineering, Regulation 2010

- able to use level, theodoliteand tachometer
- able to conduct leveling work.
- To perform ability to conduct traversing with theodolite.
- To perform ability to determine horizontal and vertical distances of inaccessible points.

### SHORT DESCRIPTION

Leveling; Contouring; Theodolite surveying; Traversing, Tachometric surveying, and Topographic surveying,

### DETAIL DESCRIPTION

__Theory__** :**

**Understand the concept of leveling.**

1.1 Define Level and Leveling

1.2 Describe the purpose of leveling.

1.3 State the term surface.

1.4 Explain the following terms in leveling :

- a) Level surface b) Level line
- c) Horizontal surface d) Horizontal line
- e) Vertical plane f) Vertical line
- g) Datum surface h) Datum
- i) Reduced level j) Formation level

**Understand the application of bench mark (BM).**- State the meaning of bench mark.
- Mention the classification of bench marks.
- Describe different types of bench mark.

**Understand the features of leveling instruments.**

*11 **3.1 List the equipment and accessories required for leveling.*

3.2 Identify the different types of level.

3.3 Label the different parts of a level.

3.4 Explain the following terms related to leveling:

- a) Line of collimation b) Axis of telescope
- c) Axis of bubble tube d) Vertical axis
- e) Height of instrument f) Plane of collimation
- g) Focussing h) Parallax

**Understand the application of leveling staff.**- Mention the purposes of leveling staff.
- Identify different types of leveling staff.
- Mention the procedure of taking staff reading with the help of sopwith staff and meter staff.
- Identify the positions of setting up leveling instruments.
- Mention the procedure of holding a leveling staff.
- Mention the procedure of taking staff reading.

**Understand the adjustment of leveling instrument.**- State the meaning of adjustment of leveling instruments.
- Mention different kinds of adjustments of level.
- State the different steps of temporary adjustment.
- Identify the fundamental lines of leveling instrument.
- Mention the relations among the fundamental lines.
- Identify the permanent adjustments of auto set and digital level.
- Solve problems on permanent adjustments of levels.

**Understand booking of staff reading and reduction of level.**- Explain the meaning of following terms as used in leveling:

- Back sight, foresight and intermediate sight reading
- Change point
- Station

6.2 State the necessity of level book or field book.

6.3 Identify different kinds of level book or field book.

6.4 Describe the term reduction of leveling.

6.5 Mention the procedure of booking of staff reading into level book.

6.6 Compare different methods of reduction of leveling.

6.7 Solve problems on reduction of leveling.

6.8 Solve problems on calculation of missing data of old level book.

**Understand various classification of leveling.**- List different kinds of leveling :
- Identify the different kinds of leveling.
- Describe the procedure of fly leveling, profile leveling, cross sectioning and check leveling.
- Solve different problems on fly leveling, profile leveling, cross sectioning and check leveling.
- Sate the purposes of reciprocal leveling.
- Describe the procedure of reciprocal leveling.
- Solve problems on reciprocal leveling.

**Understand the aspects of plotting level sections.**- State the meaning of longitudinal profile and cross profile of a leveling work.
- Mention the purposes of plotting long section and cross section of leveling works.
- Explain the various elements of longitudinal section and cross section of leveling works.
- Describe the procedure of plotting long and cross-section.
- Prepare longitudinal profile and cross profile from given data.

**9 Understand the difficulties and errors in leveling.**

9.1 Identify difficulties in leveling.

9.2 Mention the procedure of leveling in the following cases :

- Ascending and descending a hill.
- Staff too near the level.
- Staff too low or too high.
- Staff station above the line of collimation.
- Board fence on the alignment.
- Wall on the alignment.
- List the instrumental and personal errors in leveling.

9.4 Explain the effects of earth’s curvature and refraction of light on leveling.

9.5 Deduce the formula for earth curvature and refraction of

light.

- Solve problems on errors due to curvature and refraction.
- Deduce the formula for distance to the visible horizon

and dip of the horizon.

- Solve problems on visible horizon and dip of the horizon.
- List the common mistakes in leveling.
- Specify the magnitude and permissible limits of closing error in leveling.

**Understand the aspects of contouring.**

10.1 Explain the terms contour, contouring, horizontal equivalent and vertical

interval.

10.2 Mention the characteristics of contour.

10.3 List the uses of contour.

10.4 Mention the different methods of contouring .

10.5 State the procedure of differernt methods of contouring.

- Explain interpolation of contour by estimation method only.
- Mention the procedure of drawing contour map.
- Draw contour maps of hill, reservoir, valley etc.

**Understand the application of contour maps.**

11.1 Identify the various uses of contour map.

11.2 State the procedure of locating the proposed route for a road, canal and

drainage work.

11.3 Calculate the capacity of reservoir using contour map.

11.4 Calculate the quantity of earth in cutting and in filling by using contour map.

*12 ** *

*12 **Understand the fundamentals of theodolite.*

12.1 Distinguish between a transit and non-transit theodolite.

12.2 Identify the common parts of a transit (digital) theodolite.

12.3 Mention the functions of different parts of a transit (digital) theodolite.

12.4 State the meaning of diaphragm, lense, spherical aberration, chromatic aberration, centering and transiting, display board

**13 Understand the adjustment of transit(digital) theodolite .**

13.1 Identify the different types of adjustment.

13.2 Explain the significance of temporary adjustment.

13.3 State different steps of temporary adjustment of theodolite.

13.4 Identify the fundamental lines of transit(digital) theodolite.

13.5 Mention the relations among the fundamental lines.

13.6 Identify the permanent adjustments of transit(digital) theodolite.

**14 Understand the principles of measuring angles and bearing with theodolite.**

14.1 Mention the procedure of measuring horizontal angles.

14.2 Mention the procedure of measuring vertical angles.

14.3 Mention the procedure of measuring magnetic bearing of a line.

14.4 Mention the procedure of determining true bearing of a line by observing

pole star.

** **

**15 Understand the application of trigonometrical leveling.**

15.1 Explain the basic principle of trigonometrical leveling.

15.2 Describe the method of measuring height when the object is accessible.

15.3 Express the deduction of the formula for measuring height and horizontal

distance when the object is inaccessible in the case of object and the

station are in different vertical plane and in different levels.

15.4 Express the deduction of the formula for measuring height and horizontal

distance when the object is inaccessible in the case of object and the station are in different vertical plane and in different levels.

15.5 Solve problems on finding heights and distances.

** **

** **

**16 Understand the principles of traverse survey.**

16.1 Explain the meaning of traverse.

16.2 List the field works in theodolite traversing.

16.3 Describe the traversing by methods of included angles and direct angle.

16.4 Explain the term checking of traverse.

**17 Apply the concept of plotting a traverse.**

17.1 Explain the process of plotting a traverse.

17.2 Calculate the bearing from angles of traverse.

17.3 Compute the coordinates of a traverse.

17.4 Describe the Bowditch’s rule and Transit rule.

17.5 Define Balancing of closed traverse.

**18 Understand the concept of traverse in solving problems.**

18.1 Describe different types of problems in traversing.

18.2 Calculate the length and bearing of a missing side and any included angle

of a traverse.

18.3 Compute the area of closed traverse by coordinate, latitude and double

meridian, departure and total latitude methods.

*13 **19 Understand the sources of errors in theodolite traversing. *

19.1 Identify the sources of errors in theodolite work.

19.2 List the common mistakes in theodolite work.

19.3 Explain the way to avoid errors & mistakes in theodolite work.

**20 Understand the principle of stadia or tachometric surveying.**

20.1 State the meaning of stadia surveying.

20.2 Mention the necessity of stadia surveying.

20.3 Identify the instruments required for stadia surveying.

20.4 Express the derivation of the formula based on the principle of stadia

surveying.

20.5 Explain the effect of anallatic lense.

20.6 Explain the methods of determining the tachometric constants.

**21 Understand the concept of angular tachometry.**

21.1 Describe angular tachometry.

21.2 Express the derivation of the formula to determine the horizontal distance

and elevation when the staff is held in vertical position for both upward

and downward sights.

21.3 Express the derivation of the formula to determine the horizontal distance

and elevation when the staff is held perpendicular to the line of sight for

both upward and downward sights.

21.4 Describe the procedure of stadia surveying.

21.5 Solve problems on stadia surveying.

** **

**22 Understand the concept of topographic surveying.**

22.1 State the meaning of topographic survey and the relief.

22.2 Explain the methods of representation of relief.

22.3 Mention the procedure of topographic survey.

22.4 Explain the method of locating horizontal and vertical control.

22.5 Explain the method of locating contours.

22.6 Explain the method of locating details.

22.7 Describe the procedure of plotting a topographic map.

__Practical__** :**

** **

- Demonstrate the components of level.
- Perform temporary adjustments of level.
- Conduct fly leveling.
- Conduct profile leveling, cross-sectioning and plot level sections.
- Conduct reciprocal leveling.
- Conduct check leveling.
- Conduct contouring by direct method over a low lying/elevated area, prepare contour map and calculate the quantity of earth work in filling/cutting.
- Determine horizontal angle using a transit(digital) theodolite.
- Determine vertical angle using a transit(digital) theodolite.
- Determine height and distance of a tower using a transit(digital) theodolite.
- Conduct traversing with a theodolite and plot maps including computation of area.
- Determine the tachometeric constant experimentally.
- Determine horizontal and vertical distances with tachometer.
- Determine horizontal and vertical distances with modern level fitted with stadia.

*14 ** *

**REFERENCE BOOKS**

** **

- Surveying – Aziz and Shahjahan
- Surveying & Leveling – T P Kanetker
- Surveying – Norman Thomas

Plane & Geodetic survey – D Clark