Radio wave Propagation & Radar

AIMS

• To be able to understand the propagation of radio waves.
• To be able to understand the effect of earth curvature & ionosphere on wave propagation.
• To be able to understand the basic concept of radio detection and ranging (RADAR).
• To be able to understand the basic features of radar system.
• To be able to understand the types and application of radar system.
• To be able to understand basic concept of radio aids.
• To be able to understand the basic concept of navigational aids.

SHORT DESCRIPTION

The propagation of radio waves, the effect of earth curvature & ionosphere on wave propagation, the basic concept of radio detection and ranging (RADAR), the basic features of radar system, the features of radar system, basic concept of radio aids, navigational aids.

DETAIL DESCRIPTION

Theory

1. 1.1 Mention the nature of electromagnetic Waves.
1.2 Mention the frequency spectrum of electromagnetic waves
1.3 Mention the characteristics including polarization of electromagnetic waves.
1.4 Mention the modes of radio wave propagation.
1.5 Mention the classification of radio wave on the basis of frequency, distance and application.
1.6 Mention the characteristics of ground wave, space wave and sky wave propagation.
1.7 Explain the summerfield equation.
1.8 Mention the effect of environment in propagation of waves.
1.9 Describe the field strength and range of propagation in terms of antenna height for space wave propagation.

2. Understand the effect of earth curvature & ionosphere on wave propagation.

2.1 Mention the effect of earth curvature and atmosphere on space wave propagation.
2.2 Explain the duct propagation, multi-hop propagation and trophoscatter propagation.
2.3 Explain the term ionosphere.
2.4 Identify the layers of ionosphere.
2.5 List the basic properties of different layers of the ionosphere.
2.6 Explain the reflection and refraction through ionosphere.
2.7 Describe the ionosphere variation and effects of earth magnetic fields.
2.8 Define skip distance, skip zone and MUF.
2.9 Explain the fading and noise in sky wave propagation.

3. Understand the basic concept of radio detection and ranging (RADAR).

3.1 Describe the basic principal of radio detection and ranging.
3.2 Express the deduction of the radar range equation.
3.3 Mention the factors influencing maximum range.
3.4 Mention the effect of noise.
3.5 Describe power and frequencies used in radar.

4. Understand the basic features of radar system.

4.1 Mention different types of radar.
4.2 Describe the working principle of radar transmitter.
4.3 List the special considerations in radar receiver.
4.4 Describe the scanning and display considerations of radar system,
4.5 Describe the working principle of radar feeder systems.
4.6 Describe the working principle of duplexer.
4.7 Describe the scanning pattern of radar antenna.

5. Understand the Type and application of radar system.

5.1 Describe the operation of basic pulsed radar system.
5.2 Describe the working principle of moving target indicator (MTI).
5.3 Describe the basic principle of tracking radar system and search radar system.
5.4 Describe the working principle of Doppler radar.
5.5 Mention the advantages and limitations of CW Doppler radar.
5.6 Describe the working principle of FM CW radar.
5.7 Describe the working principle of modem radar system.
5.8 Describe the function of RADAR Display system.

6. Understand basic concept of radio aids.

6.1 Describe the basic principle of radio direction finding.
6.2 Explain the basic principle of very high frequency omnidirection range (VOR).
6.3 Describe the operation of distance measuring equipment (DME).

7. Understand the basic concept of navigational aids.

7.1 Describe the operating principle of long range navigation (LORAN) and short range navigation (SORAN).
7.2 Describe the working principle of instruments landing system (ILS).
7.3 Describe the working principle of ground control approach.
7.4 Describe the basic principle of marker beacons and transponders.
7.5 Describe the semi-automatic ground environment tele-processing system with block diagram.

PRACTICAL

1. Study the operation of pulse radar.
2. Study the operation of MTI.
3. Study the operation of CW radar.
4. Study the operation of FMCW radar.
5. Study the operation of a loop antenna for direction finding.
6. Study the operation of VOR.
7. Study the operation of a DME.
8. Study the operation of a LORAN.
9. Study the operation of an ILS.
10. Study the operation of ground control approach.
11. Visit nearest RADAR station.

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