• To provide the comprehensive knowledge and skill on four terminal network.
• To provide the understanding and skill on attenuator & filters.
• To familiarize with the transmission line.
• To provide the understanding and skill on antenna.
• To familiarize with the propagation of radio waves.
Four terminal networks; Half section network; Attenuators and filters; Transmission line; Line constant & impedance matching; Antenna; Propagation of radio wave; Effect of earth curvature & ionosphere on wave propagation.
1 Understand the features of four terminal network.
1.1 Define network
1.2 Define the terms (a) Active element (b) passive element (c) linear & non linear element d. Unilateral & Bilateral elements
1.3 State the classification of networks.
1.4 Define symmetrical and asymmetrical networks.
1.5 Illustrate characteristic impedance, propagation constant, attenuation constant and phase constant of general four terminal symmetrical networks connected in services.
1.6 Illustrate iterative impedance, image impedance, image transfer constant and insertion loss of general four terminal asymmetrical network connected in series.
2 Understand the features of special network.
2.1 Define recurrent network.
2.2 Distinguish between the unbalanced and balanced structure ladder network.
2.3 State the meaning of lattice network.
2.4 Draw unbalanced and balanced ladder network as series of T, and L sections.
2.5 Explain the equivalence between balanced and unbalanced sections.
2.6 Mention the parameters of four terminal networks.
3 Understand the features of T, , L and half section networks.
3.1 Express the deduction of the characteristic impedance (ZO) in terms of lumped impedance (z1, z2) of symmetrical T section and section networks.
3.2 Express the deduction of the ZO in terms of ZOC and ZSC for T and section.
3.3 Express the deduction of the propagation constants in terms of z1 and z2 for T& section.
3.4 Identify the symmetrical T and section into half section network.
3.5 Express the deduction of the iterative, image, open and short circuit impedance of half section networks.
3.6 Identify the unbalanced and balanced forms of L sections.
3.7 Express the deduction of the iterative and image impedance of L section network.
3.8 Draw the T as star and as a mesh network.
4 Understand the features of resonance circuit .
4.1 Define resonance circuit
4.2 Mention the types of resonance circuit .
4.3 Analyze series and parallel resonance circuit .
4.4 Explain graphical representation of series and parallel resonance
4.5 Define half power point 3-db point resonance frequency ,Upper and lower cut of frequency
4.6 Derive the equation of Upper and lower cut of frequency in terms of circuit parameter .
4.7 Explain Q- factor .
4.8 Deduce the equation of Q–factor .
5 Understand the features of attenuators and filter.
5.1 Define attenuator and filter.
5.2 Define passive & Active filter.
5.3 Express attenuation in decibles and nepers.
5.4 Mention the general characteristics of attenuating network.
5.5 Show mathematically the attenuators involving symmetrical, asymmetrical, L and type network.
5.6 Explain the variable and ladders attenuator.
5.7 List the types of filters.
5.8 Mention the general properties of lowpass, highpass, bandpass and bandstop filters.
5.9 Mention the application of lowpass, highpass, bandpass and bandstop filters.
5.10 Represent the lowpass filter in symmetrical unbalanced and balanced T-section and symmetrical unbalanced and balanced section forms.
5.11 State the theorem connecting alpha and ZO.
6 Understand the features of special filter.
6.1 Explain the cut off frequency and constant K-section of filter network.
6.2 Mention the reactance frequency characteristics of T and lowpass and highpass filters.
6.3 Identify the attenuation vs. frequency, phase shift vs. frequency, characteristic impedance vs. frequency curve.
6.4 Mention the significance of T and section low and highpass filters.
6.5 Express the deduction of M-derived filters.
6.6 Explain the operation of crystal filters.
6.7 Describe the impedance matching of filters.
6.8 Mention the difference between active and passive filters.
7 Understand the features of transmission line.
7.1 Identify the types of transmission lines.
7.2 List the application of transmission lines.
7.3 Explain the velocity of propagation and characteristics impedance of transmission line.
7.4 Define infinite line.
7.5 Explain the short line terminated in ZO.
7.6 Explain the current and voltage wave along a transmission line.
7.7 Mention the propagation, attenuation and phase constant of a transmission line.
7.8 Describe the voltage, current and power reflection of transmission line.
8 Understand the features of line constant & impedance matching.
8.1 State the meaning of the terms primary and secondary line constants.
8.2 Express the deduction of secondary line constant such as alpha, beta, gamma and Zo in terms of primary line constants.
8.3 Express the deduction of the condition of minimum attenuation, minimum distortion and distortionless condition of transmission line.
8.4 Describe continuous loading and lumped loading.
8.5 List the use of continuous loading and lumped loading.
8.6 Describe the construction of loading coils.
8.7 Mention the use of loading coils.
8.8 Explain the input impedance of transmission line.
8.9 Explain the impedance matching, single stub, double stub and quarter wave transformer.
8.10 Mention the characteristics of the high frequency transmission line.
9 Understand the features of antenna.
9.1 State the physical idea of radiation of electromagnetic energy from antenna.
9.2 Define point source, power gain directivity, aperture, effective area, radiation pattern, beam angle, radiation angle, beam and radiation distance related to antenna.
10 Understand the construction & operation of antenna.
10.1 Describe the construction of dipole, folded dipole, yagi, marconi and whip antenna.
10.2 Describe the operation of dipole, folded dipole, yagi, marconi and whip antenna.
10.3 Describe the radiation pattern of dipole, folded dipole, yagi, marconi and whip antenna.
10.4 Describe the construction of V, rombic, parastic and turnstill antenna.
10.5 Describe the operation of V, rombic, parastic and turnstill antenna.
10.6 Explain the construction of end-fire and broad-side array.
10.7 Explain the operation of end-fire and broad-side array.
10.8 Describe the design of dish antenna.
10.9 Mention the coupling and impedance matching procedure of antenna.
10.10 Explain the construction of the log periodic antenna.
11 Understand the propagation of radio waves.
11.1 Mention the nature of electromagnetic waves.
11.2 Mention the characteristics including polarization of electromagnetic waves.
11.3 Mention the modes of radio wave propagation.
11.4 Mention the classification of radio wave on the basis of frequency, distance and application.
11.5 Mention the characteristics of ground, space and sky wave propagation.
11.6 Explain the summerfield equation and effect of terran for ground wave propagation.
11.7 State the effect of environment in propagation of waves.
11.8 Describe the field strength and range of propagation in terms of antenna height for space wave propagation.
12 Understand the effect of earth curvature & ionosphere on wave propagation.
12.1 Mention the effect of earth curvature and atmosphere on space wave propagation.
12.2 Explain the duct propagation, multi-hop propagation and trophoscatter propagation.
12.3 Explain the term ionosphere.
12.4 Identify the layers of ionosphere.
12.5 List the basic properties of different layers of the ionosphere.
12.6 Explain the reflection and refraction through ionosphere.
12.7 Describe the ionosphere variation and effects of earths magnetic fields.
12.8 Define skip distance, skip zone and M. U. F.
12.9 Explain the fading and noise in sky wave propagation.
1 Measure the characteristic impedance of a symmetrical T network.
1.1 Select the required components, connecting board, meter and necessary materials.
1.2 Build up a diagram of symmetrical T network.
1.3 Set the components on the board as per diagram.
1.4 Check the connections.
1.5 Find the characteristic impedance.
1.6 Compare the observed result with theoretical value.
2 Measure the image impedance of a given asymmetrical T network.
2.1 Select the required components.
2.2 Select the connecting board, meter and materials.
2.3 Select a circuit diagram.
2.4 Set the components on the board according to the circuit diagram.
2.5 Check the connections.
2.6 Record the characteristic impedance.
2.7 Compare the observed result with theoretical value.
3 Measure the attenuation of symmetrical T type attenuator.
3.1 Select the attenuator circuit.
3.2 Select the components, meters, board and materials.
3.3 Connect the components of the board as per diagram.
3.4 Check the connections.
3.5 Record the required data.
3.6 Calculate the attenuation.
4 Determine the impedance characteristics of prototype lowpass filter.
4.1 Select a T or lowpass filter circuit.
4.2 Select the component board, tools and materials.
4.3 Connect the components according to the diagram.
4.4 Record the impedance for various frequency.
4.5 Draw the reactance frequency curve from the data.
4.6 Show the pass band and attenuation band.
5 Determine the attenuation characteristics of a prototype lowpass filter.
5.1 Select the required circuit.
5.2 Select the components, board, meter and materials.
5.3 Connect the circuit components as per diagram.
5.4 Energize the circuit.
5.5 Record the required data for various frequencies.
5.6 Calculate the attenuations by collected data.
5.7 Draw the attenuation frequency curve from the data.
5.8 Observe the graph.
6 Determine the impedance characteristics of a highpass filter.
6.1 Select a high filter circuit.
6.2 Select the components, board, meter and materials.
6.3 Connect the components and energize the circuit.
6.4 Record the impedance for various frequencies.
6.5 Draw the reactance frequency curve.
6.6 Show the pass band and attenuation band.
7 Determine the attenuation characteristics of a high pass filter.
7.1 Select the required circuit.
7.2 Select the components, board, meter and materials.
7.3 Connect the components as per diagram.
7.4 Collect the required data for various frequencies.
7.5 Calculate the attenuations by collected data.
7.6 Plot the graph.
8 Measure the velocity of propagation through a parallel wire transmission line.
8.1 Select a parallel wire transmission line.
8.2 Select the required equipment and tools.
8.3 Use a proper reactance meter to measure the inductance and capacitance per mile.
8.4 Use the formula V= to measure the inductance and capacitance per loss less line.
8.5 Add the correction factor due to loss.
9 Measure the attenuation constant, phase constant and propagation constant of transmission line.
9.1 Select a transmission line.
9.2 Select the required equipment, tools and materials.
9.3 Find the line constants using proper tools.
9.4 Calculate the attenuation and phase constant from the data.
9.5 Calculate the propagation constant from alpha and beta.
10 Measure the characteristic impedance of a transmission line.
10.1 Select a transmission line.
10.2 Select the required equipment, tools and materials.
10.3 Connect the meter to measure required line constant.
10.4 Calculate the characteristic impedance from line constants.
11 Design and verify the impedance matching of transmission with a quarter wave transformer.
11.1 Select a transmission line with given Rl and Zo.
11.2 Select required equipment and tools for verification.
11.3 Design the quarter wave transformer using formula Ro = R2Zo
11.4 Connect the quarter wave transformer between load and transmission line.
11.5 Observe the matching with the energy transmission.
12 Determine the radiation pattern of dipole antenna.
12.1 Select a source (test antenna), receiver, indicator, power supply, mounting frame.
12.2 Select the required equipment and tools.
12.3 Connect the radiotor dipole with the power supply and receiver to the indicator.
12.4 Place the source and radiotor in the flexible mounting frame.
12.5 Energize the system.
12.6 Rotate the receiver at constant radius around the source.
12.7 Record the power received by the indicator.
12.8 Plot the output versus angular location curve.
12.9 Find the radiation pattern.
13 Construct of an yagi antenna.
13.1 Select the folded dipole, director and reflector of the antenna.
13.2 Select the required equipment, tools and materials.
13.3 Build up the antenna element with proper design data.
13.4 Connect the antenna with transmission line to the TV receiver.
13.5 Observe the receiver output.
1 Network, Filters and Transmission Lines
P. K. Jain
2 Electronics and Radio Engineering
M. L. Gupta