Industrial Electronics

AIMS
 To provide understanding and skill on SCR and TRIAC.
 To provide understanding and skill on phase controlled rectifier.
 To provide understanding and skill on wave shaping circuits.
 To familiarize with integrated circuits.
 To give an understanding on the Operational Amplifier.
 To develop comprehensive knowledge and skill on power switching device.
 To provide understanding and skill on optoelectronic device and security system.
 To provide understanding and skill on special electronic equipment.
 To familiarize with the programmable logic controller.
SHORT DESCRIPTION

UJT, SCR, PUT, DIAC, TRIAC, controlled rectifier, wave shaping circuits, integrated circuit, Operational amplifier, Power switching devices; Optoelectronic device; Security system; Special electronic equipment and Programmable logic controller.

DETAIL DESCRIPTION

Theory:

1. Understand the Concept of Unijunction Transistor (UJT).
1.1 Describe the structure and operation of UJT.
1.2 Identify the UJT by its equivalent circuit.
1.3 Define standoff ratio.
1.4 Explain why UJT is not a thyristor.
1.5 Analyze the operation of a UJT relaxation oscillator.
1.6 Analyze the operation of UJT controlled SCR dc operated time-delay circuit.

2. Understand the Concept of Silicon Control Rectifier (SCR)
2.1 Define Thyristors.
2.2 Mention the types of Thyristors.
2.3 Describe the construction and operation of SCR.
2.4 Describe the I-V characteristics of SCR.
2.5 Explain the operation of SCR using two-transistor Equivalent circuit.
2.6 Derive the equation for anode current.
2.7 Explain how to turn an SCR on and off.
2.8 Define various parameters and mention the ratings of SCR.
2.9 Explain the operation of automatic battery charger, emergency lighting.
2.10 System, heater control, and over voltage protection circuits.
2.11 Mention the advantages of SCR as a switch.
2.12 Describe the construction and operation of light activated SCR (LASCR).

3 Understand the Concept of Controlled Rectifier.
3.1 Define Controlled Rectifier.
3.2 Mention the types of control rectifier.
3.3 Describe the operation of half wave controlled rectifier using SCR for resistive and inductive load with wave shapes.
3.4 Drive the equation for load current and voltage of half wave controlled rectifier for resistive and inductive load.
3.5 Analyze the operation of single-phase full-wave mid-point controlled rectifier, Half controlled and full controlled bridge rectifier with wave shapes.
3.6 Drive the equation for load current and voltage of full wave rectifier.
3.7 Explain the effect of freewheeling diode in rectifier circuit with inductive load.
3.8 Describe the operation of poly-phase controlled rectifier.
3.9 Mention the operation of (a) Illumination circuit (b) Speed control of dc and ac motors.
4 Understand the Concept of Programmable Unijunction Transistor (PUT)
4. 1 Describe the structure and operation of the PUT.
4. 2 State how to set the trigger voltage of PUT.
4. 3 Explain the difference between a PUT and UJT.
4. 4 Analyze the operation of a PUT relaxation oscillator.

5. Understand the Concept of DIAC and TRIAC
5.1 Describe the structure and operation of DIAC.
5.2 Explain the I-V characteristics curve of DIAC.
5.3 Describe the structure of TRIAC.
5.4 Discuss the SCR equivalent circuit of TRIAC.
5.5 Explain the triggering modes of TRIAC.
5.6 Describe the characteristics curve of TRIAC.
5.7 State the commutation of TRIAC.
5.8 Analyze the operation of TRIAC firing circuits using (i) DIAC (ii) UJT.
5.9 Analyze the operation of a TRIAC phase control, lamp dimmer and Heat control circuit.

6. Understand the features of wave shaping circuits.
6.1 Mention the types of wave shaping circuit.
6.2 Discuss the principles of RC and RL differentiating and integrating circuits.
6.3 Analyze the output waves for various input wave shapes of differentiating and integrating circuit.
6.4 Explain the operation of various clippers by PN junction diode, zener diode and transistor.
6.5 Describe the operation of of diode clamping circuit for different input wave shape.

7. Understand the Features of Integrated Circuit (IC).
7.1 Define IC
7.2 List the advantages and limitation of IC’s.
7.3 Mention the scale of integration.
7.4 Identify the types of integrated circuits.
7.5 Describe the fabrication monolithic integrated circuits.
7.6 Describe the fabrication of integrated circuit components resistor, capacitor BJT and FET.

8. Understand the Features of Operational Amplifier (Op- Amp)
8.1 Define operational amplifier.
8.2 Recognize the Op-Amp symbol.
8.3 Identify the terminals on Op-Amp packages.
8.4 State the basic principle of Op-Amp.
8.5 Analyze the equivalent circuit of Op-Amp.
8.6 State the golden rule and virtual ground of Op-Amp.
8.7 List the characteristics of an ideal Op-Amp.
8.8 Describe the input& output impedance, input offset voltage, input bias current, input offset current, common-mode input voltage range, open-loop voltage gain, common-mode rejection ratio, slew rate, frequency response and unity-gain bandwidth.
8.9 Explain the operation of Op-Amp in inverter, scale changer, unity follower, comparator, phase shifter, adder, subtractor, differentiator, integrator, ramp generator, multichannel amplifier and filters.

9. Understand the feature of advance power switching devices
9.1 Describe the construction of GTO, IGBT, MCT, SIT and SITH & LASCR.
9.2 Explain the principles of operation of GTO, IGBT, MCT, SIT and SITH & LASCR.
9.3 Mention the v-i characteristics of GTO, IGBT, MCT, SIT and SITH &LASCR devices.
9.4 List the application of various power switching devices.

10. Understand the features of photo resistors, photo diodes and phototransistors.
10.1 Describe the basic structure of photo resistors, photo diodes & photo transistors.
10.2 Explain the operating principles of photo resistors, photo diodes & photo transistors.
10.3 Explain the v-i characteristics curve of photo resistors, photo diodes and photo transistors.
10.4 List typical applications of photo resistors, photo diodes and photo transistors.
10.5 Explain a block diagram showing how photo detectors used in speed measuring system.
10.6 Explain the operation of photo diode switching circuit.
10.7 Explain the operation of photo transistor switching circuit.

11. Understand the features of security system.
11.1 Explain the operation fire (smoke) indication system using lionizatio detector and photo 11.2 transistor with block diagram.
11.3 Describe the operation of touch and non-touch type person (thief) detector using Infrared detection system with block diagram.
11.4 Explain the operation of video monitoring system using video camera and video monitor (With multiple monitor switching).

12. Understand the features of special electronic equipment.
12.1 Mention the principles of operation of UPS with block diagram.
12.2 Mention the principles of operation of SMPS with block diagram.
12.3 Mention the principles of operation of multimedia projector with block diagram.

13. Understand the features of programmable logic controllers (PLCs).
13.1 Mention the basic operating and programming principles of PLCs.
13.2 Draw a simplified block diagram showing the main parts of a PLC.
13.3 State the function of main part of PLC.

Practical:
1 Determine the characteristics curve of UJT.
1.1 Select an appropriate experiment circuit, required materials, tools and equipments.
1.2 Connect the circuit as per diagram with meters.
1.3 Check the circuit and switch on the power supply.
1.4 Record the data for I-V curve.
1.5 Plot the curve.
2 Study the gate control of forward breakdown voltage for an SCR.
2.1 Select an appropriate circuit, required tools, equipments and materials.
2.2 Connect the circuit as per diagram with meters.
2.3 Switch on the power supply and make proper adjustments.
2.4 Set the gate control at minimum and observe the breakdown voltage for I-V characteristics.
2.5 Increase gate current in steps and observe the breakdown voltage.
2.6 Plot the I-V characteristics curve.
2.7 Compare different curves and breakdown voltage.

3 Study the Operation of a single phase controlled rectifier using SCR.
3.1 Select an appropriate experiment circuit.
3.2 Select required tools, equipments and materials.
3.3 Connect the circuit as per diagram with Oscilloscope.
3.4 Check the connection and switch on the power supply.
3.5 Observe the wave shapes at relevant points of the circuit.

4 Study the Operation of a Illumination Circuit.
4.1 Select an appropriate experiment circuit.
4.2 Select required tools, equipments and materials.
4.3 Connect the circuit as per diagram.
4.4 Check the connection and switch on the power supply.
4.5 Adjust the POT and observe the Illumination.

5 Determine the characteristics curve of DIAC.
5.1 Select an appropriate experiment circuit, required materials, tools and equipments.
5.2 Connect the circuit as per diagram with meters.
5.3 Check the circuit and switch on the power supply.
5.4 Record the data for I-V curve.
5.5 Plot the curve.

6 Study the Operation of a RC differentiating circuit.
6.1 Select a RC differentiating circuit.
6.2 Select required materials, tools and equipments.
6.3 Connect the circuit as per diagram with CRO.
6.4 Switch on the power supply.
6.5 Adjust the signal frequency for the differentiating circuit.
6.6 Observe the output wave for different input wave shape on CRO screen.

7 Study the Operation of a RC Integrating circuit.
7.1 Select a RC differentiating circuit.
7.2 Select required materials, tools and equipments.
7.3 Connect the circuit as per diagram with CRO.
7.4 Switch on the power supply.
7.5 Adjust the signal frequency for the differentiating circuit.
7.6 Observe the output wave for different input wave shape on CRO screen.

8 Study the operation of biased and unbiased series and shunt clipping circuits for positive and negative peak and bias clipping of a sine wave using switching diodes.
8.1 Select a required circuit.
8.2 Select the associate equipments and materials.
8.3 Buildup the circuit for required wave shapes.
8.4 Switch on the power supply.
8.5 Observe the output on CRO screen.

9 Study the operation a clamping circuit.
9.1 Select a required circuit.
9.2 Select the associate equipments and materials.
9.3 Buildup the circuit for required wave shapes.
9.4 Switch on the power supply.
9.5 Observe the output on CRO screen.

10 Study the operation of Op-Amp (for IC 741) as inverting and non inverting amplifier, adder, comparator, buffer and subtractor.
10.1 Select a required circuit.
10.2 Select the associate equipments and materials.
10.3 Buildup the circuit as per function.
10.4 Switch on the power supply.
10.5 Observe the input and output wave shape on CRO screen.

11 Study the operation and application of SMPS./UPS
11.1 Select a SMPS/UPS
11.2 Identify different parts of SMPS/UPS
11.3 Observe the operation of SMPS/UPS

12 Determine the v-i characteristic curve of photo diode.
12.1 Select a required circuit.
12.2 Select tools and materials.
12.3 Build up the circuit
12.4 Check the connection.
12.5 Switch on the power supply
12.6 Record the data.
12.7 Plot the curve.

13 Study the operation of PLC.
13.1 Select a PLC trainer.
13.2 Identify different parts of turner
13.3 Observe the operation of PLC for specific purpose.

REFERENCES:

1. Electronic Device and Circuit Theory
– Robert L. Boylestad, Louis Nashelsky
2. Electronic Devices
– Floyd
3. Power Electronics
– Dr. P.S. Bimbhra
4. Principles of Electronics
5. A Text Book of Applied Electronics
– R. S. Sedha

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