Foundation Engineering Syllabus Diploma in Civil Engineering, Regulation 2010

*After completion of the course the students will the able. *

- to understand the foundation and foundation engineering.
- to understand the soil stabilization.
- to underst and the bearing capacity of soil.
- to understand the facto rs determining types of foundation.
- to understand the foundation on sand and non-plastic soil, plastic soil, non-uniform soil, rock.
- to understand the excavating and bracing.
- to understand the sheet pile wall, cofferdam and bulk head.
- to understand the damages due to construction operations.

### SHORT DESCRIPTION

Foundation and foundation engineering; Soil stabilization; Bearing capacity of soil; Factors determining the types of foundation; Foundation on sand and non-plastic silt; Foundation on clay and plastic silt; Foundation on non-uniform soil; Foundation on rock; Excavation and bracing; Sheet pile, cofferdam & bulkhead; Damages due to construction operations.

### DETAIL DESCRIPTION

__Theory:__

**1 Understand the foundation and foundation engineering.**

- State the meaning of foundation and foundation engineering.
- Mention the requirements of a satisfactory foundation.
- Mention the classification of foundation.
- Mention the factors governing the depth of foundation.

**Understand the soil stabilization.**- State the meaning of soil stabilization.
- Mention the various methods of soil stabilization.
- Describe the process of addition and removal of soil particles for soil stabilization.
- Describe the soil stabilization by drainage.
- Describe the process of sand piling.
- Describe the process of soil cement stabilization.

**Understand the bearing capacity of soil.**- Define the bearing capacity of soil.
- Explain the ultimate bearing capacity of soil.
- Mention the Tarzaghi’s bearing capacity factors.
- Express the equations for determination of ultimate bearing capacity of soil for square and circular footing.
- Calculate the ultimate bearing capacity of sandy soil.
- Explain the allowable bearing capacity of clay.
- Explain the allowable bearing capacity of sand.
- Describe the method of plate bearing test.
- Calculate the allowable bearing capacity of soil.
- Explain the methods for improving bearing capacity of soil.

**Understand the pile.**- Define pile.
- Classify pile.
- Differentiate precast & cast in situ pile.
- Describe methods of cast in situ pile.
- Describe method of preast pile.
- Explain the bearing capacity of pile.
- Describe the negative skin friction.
- State the meaning of end bearing pile.

**5** **Understand anchors. **

5.1 Define the ground anchors.

5.2 Describe the anchor in sand.

5.3 Describe the anchor in stiff clay.

5.4 State the advantage of anchoring.

**Understand the factors determining types of foundation.**

- Explain the steps in choosing types of foundation.
- Discuss the necessity of bearing capacity and settlement in choosing types of foundation.
- Describe the design loads as the factors in choosing types of foundation.

**Understand the foundation on sand and non-plastic silt.**- Mention the characteristics of sand and silt deposits.
- Explain footing on sand.
- Explain raft on sand.
- Describe the process of excavation in sand.
- Explain piles in sand.
- Explain piers on sand.

**Understand the foundation on clay and plastic silt.**- Mention the characteristics of clay and plastic silt deposits.
- Explain footing on clay.
- Explain raft on clay.
- Describe the process of excavation in clay.
- Explain piles in clay.
- State piers on clay.
- Explain settlement of foundations underlying by clay.

**Understand the foundation on non-uniform soils.**- Define the non-uniform soils.
- Describe the characteristics of soft or loose strata overlaying firm deposit.
- Explain the dense or stiff layer overlaying soft deposit as foundation material.
- Describe the characteristics of alternating soft and stiff layers.
- Describe the characteristics of irregular deposit.
- Describe the excavation in non-uniform soils.
- Describe the stability of slope in non uniform soils.

**Understand the foundation on rock.**- State the basis for design of foundation on rock.
- Explain foundation on un-weathered rock.
- Explain foundation on weathered rock.
- State the treatment of rock defects.
- Describe the process of excavation in rock.

**Understand the excavating and bracing.**- State open excavation with unsupported slope.
- Mention the necessity of sheeting and bracing.
- Describe sheeting and bracing for shallow excavation.
- Describe sheeting and bracing for deep excavation.

**Understand the sheet pile, cofferdam and bulkhead.**- State the meaning of sheet pile, coffer dam and bulk head.
- Mention the different types of sheet pile and bulkhead with sketches.
- State the forces action on a bulkhead.
- Determine the embedded length of cantilever sheet pile in cohesive soil.
- Determine the embedded length of cantilever sheet pile in non-cohesive soil.
- Design an anchored bulkhead using free earth support method for:

- Granular soil.
- Cohesive soil below dredge line.
- Solve problems relating cantilever sheet pile and anchored bulkhead.

**Understand the damages due to construction operations.**- State the settlement due to excavation.
- State the settlement due to vibration.
- Describe the settlement due to lowering the water table.
- State the displacement due to pile driving.

__Practical:__

- Perform the stabilization of soil by cement-sand method.
- Perform the stabilization of soil by sand pile method.
- Determine the ultimate bearing capacity of soil by plate bearing test.
- Determine the bearing capacity of a test pile.
- Draw soil pressure diagram beneath the footing.
- Prepare a model of pile foundation.
- Prepare a model of raft foundation.
- Prepare a model of pier foundation.
- Practice to improve the bearing capacity of soil.
- Perform the Standard Penetration Test (SPT).

- Caculate load bearing capacity of precast pile
- Caculate load bearing capacity of cast inside pile.
- Perform field test of bearing capacity of soil as per manual.
- Field visit.

**REFERENCE BOOKS**

** **

1 Foundation Engineering

– Peck and Henson

2 Soil Mechanics & Foundation

– B.C Punmia

- Foundation Engineering

– Leonard

- Soil Mechanics

– Craig

- Building Construction

– S.C Rangwala

5** **LGED Manual for soil investigation