Design of Structure -1 Syllabus Diploma in Civil Engineering

- To be able to understand the properties of reinforced cement concrete (RCC).
- To be able to select the suitable size of reinforced concrete beams & lintels with reinforcement.
- To be able to supervise the placing of reinforcement for beams & lintel.

## SHORT DESCRIPTION

Reinforced cement concrete; Theory of bending; Investigation of beam; Shear stress and bond stress; Design of reinforced cement concrete rectangular beam, T-beam, double reinforced beam and lintel.

## DETAIL DESCRIPTION

__Theory:__

**Understand the different type of cement concrete works.**- Describe the plain concrete, reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete.
- Describe the different uses of the plain concrete, reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete.
- Mention the advantages, disadvantages & limitations of the plain

concrete.

- Mention the advantages, disadvantages & limitations of the reinforced concrete.
- Mention the advantages, disadvantages & limitations of the prestressed concrete.

**Understand the structural safety, design code and safety provision.**- Explain the need for structural safety.
- Solve simple problems using the design codes.
- Explain the necessity for safety provision.

**Understand about the loads in designing reinforced concrete works.**- Define the meaning of load.
- Classify different kinds of loads.
- Define Richter scale, tectonic plate and epicenter.
- Explain the necessity of considering the seismic load and wind load in designing reinforced concrete works.
- Mention the significant of the thrust (like tidal, cyclones etc.) to be consider in designing reinforced concrete structure in coastal zone.

**Understand stress, strain and elasticity of concrete.**- State the meaning of stress, strain, ultimate stress and allowable stress of concrete.
- Define young modulus of elasticity of concrete.
- Calculate young modulus of elasticity of concrete.
- Interpret stress-strain curve of steel and concrete.
- Mention the purpose of compression test of concrete.
- State the different size & shape of moulds for compression test.
- Describe test procedure of crushing cubes and cylinders for compression test.
- Determine ultimate stress of concrete (f’c) and allowable stress of concrete (fc).
- Determine the allowable shear stress of concrete using ultimate stress of concrete.

**Understand the properties & behavior of reinforcing steel used in RCC.**- List the different types & grades of steel used in RCC and prestressed concrete.
- Mention the advantages of uses of mild steel in RCC.
- Describe the scope of using welded wire fabric in RCC.
- Mention the characteristics of plain bar, deformed bar and twisted bar and tendon.
- Mention the advantages of uses of deformed and twisted bar in RCC.
- State the minimum reinforcement used in RCC beam and slab.

**Understand the flexure formula of homogeneous beam.**- Define resisting moment.
- Explain the stress diagram of a loaded beam.
- Identify compression and tension zones of a homogenous beam.
- Express the derivation of the flexure formula for homogeneous beam.
- Solve the problems on homogeneous rectangular beam.

**Understand the concept of transformed section of beam.**- Define transformed section.
- Explain the theory of transformed section with sketches.
- Express the derivation of the equation for investigating the stresses developed in concrete and steel by transformed section method.
- Calculate the stresses developed in rectangular beam and T-beam in WSD method.
- Explain balanced reinforced beam, under reinforced beam and over reinforced beam.
- Mention the effect of under reinforcement and over reinforcement in RCC beams.

**Understand the flexure formula for RCC beam in working stress design (WSD) method.**- State the assumptions used in developing the flexure formula.
- Explain the stress diagram of a loaded RCC beam.
- Mention the notations used in flexure formula in WSD method.
- Express the derivation of the flexure formula for RCC beam in WSD method.
- Solve problems of flexure formula based on WSD method.

**Understand the shear stress developed in RCC beams.**- Explain the effects of shear force and stress in RCC beams.
- State the meaning of diagonal tension.
- Explain the causes of creating diagonal tension in RCC beams.
- Express the derivation of the formula to determine shear stress developed in RCC beams.
- Solve the problems on shear stress developed in WSD method.
- Solve the problems on shear stress developed in USD method.
- Mention the allowable shear stress for RCC beam (v) and shear stress for concrete (v
_{c}).

**Understand the functions of web reinforcement in RCC beams.**- Define web reinforcement.
- Classify web reinforcement with sketches.
- Mention the functions of web reinforcement in RCC beams.
- Determine the spacing of web reinforcement (vertical & inclined) in WSD method.
- Determine the spacing of web reinforcement in USD method.
- Determine the portion of the RCC beam requiring web reinforcement.

**Understand the bond stress developed in RCC beams.**- State the meaning of bond stress.
- Express the derivation of the formula to determine bond stress developed in RCC beams.
- State the allowable bond stress for plain bar and deformed bar in WSD and USD methods.
- Determine the anchorage length of reinforcement in RCC.
- Explain the necessity of standard hooks of reinforcement in RCC.

**Understand the design of RCC rectangular beam in WSD method.**- Outline the design steps of RCC rectangular beam in WSD method.
- State the minimum spacing of reinforcing bars in RCC beam.
- Design a simply supported RCC rectangular beam in WSD method.
- Design a semi-continuous RCC rectangular beam in WSD method.
- Design a continuous RCC rectangular beam in WSD method.

**Understand flexure formula in ultimate strength design (USD) method.**- Differentiate WSD and USD method.
- Explain the stress diagram of loaded beam with showing the actual & equivalent rectangular stress distribution of ultimate load.
- State the load and load factors used in USD method.
- Mention the notations used in flexure formula in USD method.
- Express the derivation of the flexure formula in USD method.
- Solve problems of flexure formula based on USD method.

**Understand the design of RCC rectangular beam in USD method.**- Outline the design steps of RCC rectangular beam in USD method.
- Design a simply supported RCC rectangular beam in USD method.
- Design a semi-continuous RCC rectangular beam in USD method.
- Design a continuous RCC rectangular beam in USD method.

**Understand the design of RCC cantilever & overhanging rectangular beams in WSD method.**- Determine the design load, shear force and bending moment of RCC cantilever & overhanging beams.
- Design a cantilever RCC rectangular beam.
- Design an overhanging RCC rectangular beam.
- Describe the technique of curtailment of reinforcement in cantilever RCC beams.

**Understand the T-beam and its uses.**- Define T-beam.
- Identify the different parts of a typical T-beam.
- Determine the width of flange of T-beam considering span length and slab thickness.
- State the ratio of width of web to the depth of web for T-beams.
- Distinguish between RCC rectangular beam and T-beam.

**Understand the design of RCC T-beams.**- Determine the depth and width of a simply supported T-beam in respect to shear force.
- Outline the design steps of RCC T-beam in WSD method.
- Design a simply supported RCC T-beam in WSD method.
- Design a semi-continuous RCC T-beam in WSD method.
- Design a continuous RCC T-beam in WSD method.

**Understand the design of RCC beam with compression reinforcement.**- State the meaning of double reinforced beam.
- Differentiate between RCC single and double reinforced beam.
- Outline the design steps of double reinforced beam.
- Design a simply supported double reinforced beam.
- Design a semi-continuous double reinforced beam.
- Design a continuous double reinforced beam.

**Understand the design of RCC lintel over doors & windows.**- Determine the area of the wall to be considered in determining the design load for RCC lintels.
- Outline the design steps of RCC lintel.
- Design a RCC lintel over doors and windows.

__Practical:__

**Conduct compression test of concrete for particular proportion with different water-cement ratio.**- Mix concrete with different water-cement ratio.
- Fill in the mould (cylinder and cube).
- Keep cylinder and cube in the water for curing.
- Test the specimen in the compression test machine.
- Take the readings and tabulate in the form (test report).
- Calculate the ultimate and allowable compressive strength of concrete.

**Conduct tensile strength test of mild steel for both plain bar and deformed bar of different diameters.****Prepare a model of simply supported RCC rectangular beam as per drawing.****Prepare a model of semi-continuous RCC rectangular beam as per drawing.****Prepare a model of continuous RCC rectangular beam as per drawing.****Prepare a model of double reinforced simply supported rectangular beam as per drawing.****Prepare a model of RCC lintel as per drawing.****Prepare a model of RCC lintel with sunshade as per drawing.**

**REFERENCE BOOKS**

- Simplified Design of Reinforced Concrete

-by H Parker

- Design of Concrete Structures

-by G Winter, L C Urquhart, C E O’Rourke, A H Nilson

- Treasure of R C C Designs

-by Sushil Kumar

- R C C Design -by Abul Faraz Khan