Computer Architecture


•To able to familiarize with the fundamentals of computer architecture
•To able to understand the encoding procedure of instruction for computing.
•To able to develop knowledge and skill on designing Adder,subtractor,
multiplier, divisor and ALU.
•To be able to develop knowledge and skill on the execution unit, control unit, memory organization and I/O systems.
•To be able to familiarize with parallel. and multi processing system.
* To be able to familiarize with Dual Core and Core I processor.

Computer architecture fundamentals; Computer instruction design; Arithmetic Logic and Control unit; Memory organization; Input/output operation and Parallel processing. Feature of Dual Core and Core I processor.



1 Understand the basics of computer architecture.
1.1 State the meaning of stored program computer.
1.2 Distinguish between stored program computer and nonstored program
1.3 Review the organization of SAP-1 as an stored program computer.
1.4 State the operation of micro and macro instructions used in SAP-1 Computer.
1.5 State the block diagram of Von Neumann and Harvard Architecture Computer
1.6 Mention the basic features of Von Neumann and Harvard Architecture

2 Understand the operation of register and type of contemporary computers.

2.1 Define General purpose register and dedicated register
2.2 Describe the operation of a four bit General Purpose register/Universal shift
2.3 State the types of contemporary computer (General register machines,
accumulator based machines & stack machines)
2.4 Describe the organization of each types of contemporary computer.
2.5 State the difference of general register machines, accumulator based machine
and stack machines.

3 Understand the instruction design process of a computer .

3.1 State the types of instruction formats depending on the number of address
with example.
3.2 Mention the characteristics of good instructions.
3.3 State the important points to be considered for designing instruction format.
3.4 State the meaning of op-code encoding & decoding
3.5 Mention the types of op-code encoding techniques.
3.6 Describe block code op-code encoding technique
3.7 Mention the merits and demerits of the block code encoding technique.
3.8 Describe the expanding op-code encoding techniques.
3.9 Describe the Huffman op-code encoding techniques
3.10 Prove that Huffman op-code encoding scheme archives optimal result
by keeping the redundancy to a minimum value.

4. Understand the design and implementation of arithmetic and logic units.
4.1 Describe the implementation of a 4 bit Ripple carry adder.
4.2 State the limitation of CPA
4.3 State the meaning of Carry generate functions and Carry propagate functions.
4.4 Describe the operation of a of 4-stage carry look-ahead circuit.
4.5 Prove that 16 bit CLA is faster than 16 bit CPA
4.6 State the steps to design a four function ALU.
4.7 Describe the organization of a of 4 bit 2 function arithmetic unit..
4.8 Describe the organization of a of 4 bit 2 function logic unit
4.9 Show the combining technique of arithmetic and logic unit.

5 Understand the operation of multiplier and divisor.
5.1 Define non-additive and additive multiplier.
5.2 Describe the algorithm to multiply two 4-bit unsigned numbers
5.3 Describe the operation of a 4×4 unsigned array multiplier.
5.4 Describe the operation of a 2’s complement sequential Booth’s multiplier
using flowchart.
5.5 Describe the operation of a sequential n bit binary divisor.
5.6 State the algorithm of restoring & non restoring division process of two
integer numbers

6 Understand the basic concepts of control unit.
6.1 . State the purposes of Control Unit.
6.2 Describe the Hardware implementation of data transfer operations of a
register with enable input and conditional control signals such as
(a)Co :A B Where Co=GD[0]and G= A >B
(b)if X=0 and t=1, then Co:A B else A D

6.3 State the meaning of hardware approach and microprogrammed approach to
design a control unit.
6.4 State the steps of hardware approach for designing a control unit..
6.5 Describe the basic structure of a microprogrammed control unit and
microinstruction format.

7 Understand the principle of memory organization .
7.1 Describe the memory hierarchy of a microcomputer system.
7.2 Mention the design goals of a memory system.
7.3 Describe the general features of centralized and distributed memory
7.4 State the formula to calculate the number of RAM chips requirements
to design higher capacity RAM.
7.5 Describe the design procedure of 1K×8 RAM and 4K×4 RAM using
1K×4 RAM chips.
7.6 Describe the conceptual organization of the bank switching and address
extension scheme.
7.7 Describe the memory organization of a cache memory in a computer system
7.8 Calculate the average access time and efficiency of a system that employs a
cache memory.

8 Understand the input / output techniques.

8.1 List the methods of data transferring techniques between computer and the I/O
8.2 Describe the programmed I/O.
8.3 Distinguish between standard I/O vs. memory mapped I/O.
8.4 Describe the basic concepts of interrupt driven I/O.
8.5 Describe the principal of direct memory access(DMA) system.

9 Understand the concept of array and pipeline processing system .
9.1 Define parallel processing.
9.2 State the parallelism facilities in conventional computers.
9.3 Classify Computer architecture using Flynn’s method with example
9.4 Describe the organization of an array processor.
9.5 Describe the basic concepts of pipe line processing.
9.6 Describe over lapped execution of instruction pipeline.
9.7 Describe the concept of arithmetic pipeline.

10 Understand the multiprocessor system.
10.1 Define multiprocessing and multitasking.
10.2 Mention the characteristics of a multiprocessor system
10.3 State the advantages of multiprocessor system.
10.4 Describe the conceptual view of a multiprocessor organization.
10.5 Describe the organization of crossbar multiprocessor system.

11. Understand the operation of Multi Core processor
11.1 State the meaning of Dual core and Core I processor.
11.2 Define cheapest
11.3 State the features of North bridge, South bridge and hub regarding cheapest.
11.4 State features of ISA, PCI-X, PCI-Xpress, AGP and Processor Bus (no pin
11.5 State the difference between PCI and PCI Express
11.6 State the concept of extended memory, Expanded memory (No memory
map); Concept of cache memory : Internal cache, External cache (L1, L2, L3
11.7 State the features of SDRAM, DDR, DDR2, DDR3
11.8 Describe the general features of RISC and CISC .
11.9 Describe the concept of Core-I processing using block diagram.
11.10 State the basic technical feature of Core I7 processor.

1. Perform the task to develop a 4 bit parallel in serial out shift register using D type Flip
2. Perform the task to develop a basic cell to design a general purpose register using a 4
input multiplexer and a D type Flip Flop.
3. Perform the task to make a 4 bit General purpose register using the basic cell.
4. Perform the task to Implement an 8 bit adder using 4 bit adder as a building blocks.
5. Perform the task to Design and develop an 8 bit adder using 4-bit CLA.
6. Perform the task to Design and develop a 4-bit adder/subtractor circuit.
7. Perform the task to Design and develop a two function logic unit.
8. Perform the task to Design and develop a four function ALU.
9. Perform the task to transfer 8 bit data to/from an I/O device using programmed
interfaces through the I/O port/ports.
10. Perform the task to Implement a 4×4 array multiplier using full adders.
11. Perform the task to Implement a 1k×8 RAM chip using 1K×4 RAM.
12. Perform the task to familiar the parts and components of a Dual core/Core-I processor
based microcomputer.

1. Modern Computer Architecture by Mohamed Rafiquzzaman.
2, Computer Architecture and Organization by John P Hayes

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