Basic Electronics

• To provide understanding soldering technique and color code.
• To provide understanding and skill on the basic concept of semiconductor and to identify physically a range of semiconductor diodes.
• To develop comprehensive knowledge and skill on special diodes and devices.
• To develop the abilities to construct different rectifier circuits.
• To provide understanding of the basic concept and principle of transistor and to identify physically a range of transistor.
• To provide understanding and skill on the basic concept of logic gates.
• To provide the understanding skill on using Electronic measuring and testing equipment.

Color code and soldering; Semiconductor; P-N junction diode; Special diodes and devices; Power supply; Transistor; Transistor amplifier; Logic gates Electronic measuring and test equipment.

1 Understand the Concept of soldering and Color Code.
1.1 Define soldering.
1.2 Describe the different types of solder.
1.3 List the things needed in soldering.
1.4 Mention the properties of a good soldered joint.
1.5 Describe the functions and construction of (i) Single sided, (ii). Double sided & (III) Multi layered Printed circuit board.
1.6 Mention the function of resistor, capacitor and inductor in electronic circuits.
1.7 Describe the procedure of determining the value of Capacitor, & Resistor using numeric and color code.

2 Understand the Concept of Semiconductor.
2.1 Define Conductor, Semiconductor and Insulator.
2.2 Describe Semiconductor with atomic structure.
2.3 Describe the effect of temperature on conductivity of Semiconductor.
2.4 Explain the energy band diagram of Conductor, Semiconductor and Insulator.
2.5 Classify Semiconductor.
2.6 Describe the generation & recombination of hole and electron in Intrinsic Semiconductor.
2.7 Define doping, P-type & N-Type material, covalent bond, majority & minority charge carrier.
2.8 Explain the characteristics of Carbon, Gallium Arsenide/Phosphide.
3 Understand the Concept of P-N Junction Diode
3.1 Define PN junction diode
3.2 Describe the formation of depletion layer in PN junction.
3.3 Discuss potential barrier, drift & diffusion current and their physical significance.
3.4 Mention the behavior of PN junction under forward and reverse bias.
3.5 Explain the forward & reverse current voltage (IV) characteristics of PN junction diode.
3.6 Explain the effect of temperature Si & Ge diode characteristics
3.7 Define (i) static resistance (II) Dynamic resistance, (III forward breakdown voltage and (II) Reverse break down voltage.
3.8 Draw the equivalent circuit of PN junction diode.
3.9 Describe the specification of diode.

4 Understand the DC power supplies.
4.1 Define dc power supply.
4.2 Mention the importance of dc power supply.
4.3 Define rectification and rectifier.
4.4 Explain the operation of Half wave, Full wave and Bridge rectifier.
4.5 Discuss ripple factor & efficiency and TUF of Half wave, Full wave and Bridge rectifier.
4.6 Explain the operation of different types filter circuits with wave shape.
4.7 Define regulated and unregulated power supply.
4.8 Describe the block diagram of a typical regulated dc power supply.

5 Understand the Concepts of Special diode.
5.1 Define Zener break down.
5.2 Describe the operation of Zener diode.
5.3 Explain IV characteristics of Zener diode.
5.4 Describe the application of Zener diode in (i) voltage stabilization, (ii) meter protection and (II) peck clipper circuits.
5.5 Describe the construction operation and application of (I) Tunnel diode (II) varactor diode (III) Schottky diode (iv) Step-Recovery diode (v) PIN diode, (vi) LED (vii) LCD (viii) photo diode (ix) Solar cell.
5.6 Describe the construction operation and application of (i) DIAC (ii) TRIAC and (iii) SCR.

6 Understand the construction and operation of Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)
6.1 Define Transistor.
6.2 Describe the construction PNP and NPN Transistor.
6.3 State the biasing rules of BJT.
6.4 Explain the mechanism of current flow of PNP and NPN Transistor.
6.5 Establish the relation among Base, Emitter and Collector current (IE = IC + IB)
6.6 Draw the three basic transistor configuration circuits (CB, CC, CE).
6.7 Describe current amplification factor α , β and .
6.8 Establish the relation among α , β and .
6.9 Solve problem related to IE, IC, IB, α , β and .
7 Understand the concept of BJT Amplifier
7.1 Define (i) Amplifier (ii) Amplification and (III) Gain
7.2 Mention the classification of Amplifier.
7.3 Describe the principle of operation of a common emitter (CE) Amplifier.
7.4 Draw DC & AC equivalent circuits of the CE amplifier circuit.
7.5 Mention the formula of (i) input resistance (ii) Output Resistance (iii) Current gain (iv) Voltage gain and (v) power gain.
7.6 Solve problem related to different gain resistance.

8 Understand the main feature of digital electronics
8.1 Describe the difference between analog and digital signal.
8.2 State the advantage of digital system.
8.3 Define logic gate.
8.4 Describe the basic operation of logic gates AND, OR, NOT NAND, NOR, XOR & XNOR.
8.5 Prepare truth table of logic gates AND, OR, NOT NAND, NOR, XOR & XNOR.

9 Understand the Electronic measuring and testing equipment
9.1 Define AVO meter.
9.2 Describe the procedure of measuring current, voltage and resistance using AVO meter.
9.3 List the control knobs of Oscilloscope.
9.4 Explain the procedure of measuring frequency and voltage using Oscilloscope.
9.5 Mention the function of (i) Function Generator (ii) Logic Probe (iii) Semiconductor Tester.

Practical :
1 Show skill in identifying the electronic components.
1.1 Observe the electronic components board and read the manuals.
1.2 Identify the different types of resistors with their values, tolerance and wattage.
1.3 Identify the different types of potentiometers with their values, & wattage.
1.4 Identify the different types of capacitors with their values, dc working voltages and types.
1.5 Identify the different types of diodes & rectifiers with the numbers and specifications.
1.6 Identify the different types of transistors and thyristors with their number and specifications.
1.7 Identify the different types of LED’s, IC’s and miniature relays with their number & specification.
1.8 Identify different types of transformer with their specification.
1.9 Identify different inductors with their values & current ratings.
1.10 Study the printed circuit boards.
1.11 Sketch the symbols of components used in electronic circuits.
1.12 Describe the basic function of each component.
1.13 Write a report on above activities.

2 Show skill in electrical measurement.
2.1 Perform simple voltage and current measurements on basic series and parallel resistor circuits using the following instruments.
a) Voltmeters and ammeters
b) AVO meters
c) Digital multimeter
d) Basic CRO
3 Show skill for determining the values of different resistors and capacitors with the help of color code.

3.1 Select color code resistors & capacitors of different values.
3.2 Identify the colors and their numerical numbers.
3.3 Determine the value of resistors with tolerance.
3.4 Determine the value of capacitors and dc working voltage.
3.5 Write a report on above activities.

4 Show skill in performing soldering.
4.1 Select wires (single strand and multi strand) and cut wires to required length.
4.2 Select soldering iron, soldering tag and soldering lead.
4.3 Remove wire insulation to required length.
4.4 Clean and tin both iron and work piece.
4.5 Use a tinned iron in order to transfer adequate heat to the joint.
4.6 Joint two singles stranded wires mechanically and solder.
4.7 Joint two multi-strand wires mechanically and solder.
4.8 Perform soldering exercise for making three dimensional wire frame.
4.9 Sketch and write a report on the job.

5 Show skill in soldering & desoldering of electronic components and wires to the other components and circuit boards.
5.1 Select electronic components, wires and PCB.
5.2 Determine the rating of the soldering iron suitable for the work piece.
5.3 Clean and tin both iron & work piece.
5.4 Feed new soldering materials to the tinned and heated joint, in order to produce a correctly soldering.
5.5 Check the quality of soldering.
5.6 Clean and tin iron and de-solder the joint and components.
5.7 Use solder suckers and solder braid for de-soldering.
5.8 Write a report on the Job.

6 Show skill in checking the semi-conductor diode.
6.1 Collect a range of semi-conductor diodes and manufactures literature.
6.2 Select the digital multimeter and set the selector switch to ohm range.
6.3 Determine the specification of semi-conductor diode.
6.4 Compare the determined specification with that of manufactures literature.
6.5 Measure forward & reverse resistances of the diode.
6.6 Identify p and p side of the diode.
6.7 Determine the condition of the diode.

7 Show skill in sketching forward and reverse characteristics curves of a semiconductor diode.
7.1 Select meter, power supply, components and materials.
7.2 Complete circuit according to circuit diagram for forward bias.
7.3 Check all connections.
7.4 Measure forward bias and corresponding forward current.
7.5 Record results in tabular form.
7.6 Connect circuit according to circuit diagram of reverse bias.
7.7 Measure reverse bias and corresponding reverse current.
7.8 Record results in tabular form.
7.9 Sketch the curves form data.

8 Show skill in sketching waves of half wave rectifier circuit.
8.1 Select meter, component, oscilloscope and materials.
8.2 Complete circuit of a half wave rectifier according to circuit diagram.
8.3 Check the circuit before operation.
8.4 Measure the input and output voltage and observe wave shapes in the oscilloscope.
8.5 Sketch the output voltage wave shape.

9 Show skill in sketching waves of full wave center tapped rectifier circuit.
9.1 Select meter, component, oscilloscope and materials.
9.2 Complete a full wave rectifier circuit according to circuit diagram.
9.3 Check the circuit supply & polarity of supply.
9.4 Measure the input & output voltages and observe wave shapes in the oscilloscope.
9.5 Sketch the output voltage wave shape.
9.6 Compare the result with half-wave rectifier circuit.

10 Show skill in constructing full wave bridge rectifier.
10.1 Select meter, component, oscilloscope and materials.
10.2 Build the circuit according to the circuit diagram.
10.3 Check the circuit.
10.4 Measure the input and output voltage.
10.5 Observe wave shape.
10.6 Compare the result with other rectifiers.
11 Show skill in identifying the bipolar junction transistor.
11.1 Select pnp & npn bipolar junction transistors.
11.2 Take DMM and manufacture’s literature of transistor.
11.3 Identify transistor legs.
11.4 Measure base-emitter, base-collector, forward and reverse resistance.
11.5 Determine the specifications with help of manufacturer’s literatures.
11.6 Identify pnp & npn transistor.

12 Show skill in determining input and output characteristics of a transistor in common emitter connection.
12.1 Select component, AVO meters, circuit board and required materials.
12.2 Construct the circuit.
12.3 Adjust the biasing voltage to appropriate point.
12.4 Record input and output voltage and current.
12.5 Plot the curve with recorded data.

13 Show skill in testing special diodes.
13.1 Select different types of special diodes.
13.2 Set the AVO meter in the ohm scale.
13.3 Measure resistances for each of two terminals.
13.4 Determine the condition (good and bad).
13.5 Determine the different terminals.

14 Verify the truth tables of different types of logic gates.
14.1 Select the specific gate.
14.2 Prepare the experimental circuit.
14.3 Adjust the power supply.
14.4 Verify the truth table.

1. A Text Book of Applied Electronics – R.S. SEDHA
2. Principles of Electronics – V. K. Mehta
3. Basic Electronics (Solid Stater) – B. L. Theraja
4. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory – ROBERT BOYLESTAD

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